Marble
 
The term "Marble" is derived from Latin word "Marmor" which itself comes from the Greek root "Marmaros" meaning thereby a shining stone. Technically marble is a recrystallised, compact variety of metamorphosed limetone capable of taking polish. Commercially, marble is any crystalline rock composed predominantly of calcite, dolomite or serpentine, having 3-4 hardness, which can be excavated as blocks and can be sawed and takes good polish.
 
 
 
The term "Marble" is derived from Latin word "Marmor" which itself comes from the Greek root "Marmaros" meaning thereby a shining stone. Technically marble is a recrystallised, compact variety of metamorphosed limetone capable of taking polish. Commercially, marble is any crystalline rock composed predominantly of calcite, dolomite or serpentine, having 3-4 hardness, which can be excavated as blocks and can be sawed and takes good polish.
 
   
 
Geographical Distribution

Rajasthan is the richest state in the country with regards to marble deposits both in quality and quantity. The state is most important centre (Mandi) of marble processing in the country with about 95% of the total processing units. Rajasthan possesses large reserves of about 1100 million tonnes (M.T) of good quality marble. The important marble deposits are :

Nagaur : Makrana, Borawad (white), Chausira, Dungri, Paharkuan (pink), Kumari, Ulodi, Pink Range, Kala Nada Talab.

Jaipur : Bhainslana, Kotputli, Andhi, Raisala, Nimla, Todi Ka Bas.

Alwar : Jhiri, Rajgarh, Dadhikar, Badampur, Kho, Baldegarh, Moti-Dungari, Malana, Goverdhanpura
Dausa : Dagota.
Jaislamer : Moolsagar, Amarsagar, Badabag, Habur, Sipla, Jethwai, Narpia.
Rajsamand : Kotri, Amet, Morwad, Agaria, Parvati, Morchana, Kelwa, Vani, Saprav Ka Guda, Thodi Nijharana, Talai, Umti, Jhanjer, Arna.
Pali : Bar-Sendra, Diyana, Khiwandi, Sarangwa, Kantatiya, Sarangwa, Kundal, Dujara.
Banswara : Vithaldev, Tripura Sundari, Kotharia, Khema-Talai, Bhanwaria-Talai, Oda-Bassi, Bhimkund, Prithvipura, Paloda.
.Udaipur : Babarmal, Devimata (Pink), Rikhabdev, Odwas, Masaron Ki Obri, (Green), Darauli, Tidi, Jaspura, Paduna, Manpur, Lohagarh, Sarvadi, Modi Chipala (White), Kela Kuan (Black).

Bundi : Umar, Pagara.

Sirohi : Selwara, Iderla, Perwa-Serwa, Khandra, Deri, Morthala, Ajari.
Dungarpur : Sabla, Nandili-Dad (calcitic), Peeth, Manpur, Dachki, Rohanwara, Mal-Surata (Green Serpentinitic).
Ajmer : Sursura, Narwar, Kali-Dungari, Torka, Ladpura, Roopnagar, Saradhana, Kekri, Umaria, Sawar, Ganeshnagar.
Sikar : Kela-Dungari (Maonda), Patan.
Jodhpur : Pachori, Chadi, Au, Moriya-Munjasar, Indolai Ki Dhani.
Bhilwara : Jahajpur, Sarankhera, Kanti, Munjras, Panchanpura, Malola, Pansel, Manohargarh, Asind, Banera, Shahpura.
Chittaurgarh : Mandal Deh.
Churu : Dunkar, Charla, Bidasar.
 
Makarana Albeta Makarana Doongari Makarana Kumari Fany Brown Churu
Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta
Andhi Indo Andhi Modern Art Jaisalmer Yellow Jaisalmer Yellow
Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta
Bhainslana Black Jhiri Onyx Rampura Black Fancy Green Bidasar
Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta
Keshariyaji Sea Green Olive Keshariyaji Agaria Morwar
Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta Makarana Albeta

Chemical Properties of Marble:
Marble Area CaO MgO SiO2 Fe2O3 LOI
Jhiri, Alwar 26-33 21-25 0.01-3.18 0.73-1.01 40-47
Tripura Sundari, Banswara 32 23-24 <=23.4 0.200.84 42-44
Mandaldeh, Chittaurgarh 35.92 3.01 18.52 2.93 33.18
Sandwa, Churu 31-37 13-22.6 <=6.44 0.12-0.26 45-46
Dungarpur 48.18 2.04 10.75 1.13 35.55
Bhainslana, Jaipur 48-54 2-4 1-3 1.5-3 35-45
Phalodi, Jodhpur 39.03 9.36 8.70 0.48 42.83
Makrana, Nagaur 50-56 0.8-1.8 0.33-1.20 0.10-0.28 34.8-43.2
Rajnagar 30-33 16-25 0.01-7.6 0.12-0.95 36-44
Sirohi 51.49 0.90 8.52 0.54 39.36
Keshariyaji, Udaipur 18.56 21.29 31.51 5.33 21.82
Babarmal, Udaipur 20.79 2.21 14.35 0.28 24.00
 
Technical Information of Marble
Technical Details
    
Water Absorption,
% by weight
Density, bulk
specific gravity
Modulus of rupture, N/mm2 Compressive strength
N/mm2
Abrassion resistance
to wear
Flexural strength, N/mm2
ASTM/
Indian Standard
    
C-97 C-97 C-99 C-170 IS 1237
Guidelines
IS 4860 Guidelines
Area

    Dry Wet Dry Wet Avg. Wear mm Mxm. Wear
mm
Makrana 0.04 2.68 14 16 88 81 3.1 3.2 16
Andhi Indo 0.05 2.68 13 11 130 109 6.6 6.8 11
Andhi
Modern art
0.08 2.68 14 17 94 114 3.8 4.1 16
Jhiri Onyx 0.06 2.68 9.00 8 142 108 5.5 5.7 8
Agaria, Rajnagar 0.06 2.84 17 16 106 102 4.0 4.2 15
Morwad, Rajnagar 0.04 2.84 12 13 111 80 3.1 3.2 13
Keshariyaji Green 0.07 2.66 42 35 286 194 1.1 1.2 35
Bidasar 2.38 - 2.43 2.55 - 2.47 19 - 24 13 - 20 138 - 114 83 - 81 1.45 1.6 12 - 20
Phalodi 0.64 2.62 15 21 212 116 2.0 2.2 20
 
Classification
Marble has been classified into 10 groups by Bureau of Indian Standards (Indian Standard Institute i.e. ISI) (IS 1130-1969) on the basis of colour, shade and pattern. Rajasthan is the most fortunate state where all the 10 groups specified below are occurring :
 
1. Plain White Marble 2. Panther Marble
3. White Veined Marble 4. Plain Black Marble
5. Black Zebra Marble 6. Green Marble
7. Pink Adanga Marble 8. Pink Marble
9. Grey Marble 10. Brown Marble
 
 
Processing of Marble
A large number of processing centres have been developed in the state at Makarana, Jaipur, Alwar, Ajmer, Udaipur, Nathdwara, Rajsamand, Morchana, Amet, Abu Road, Kishangarh, Banswara, Chittaurgarh, Sirohi etc. where more than 1100 gangsaws and 50 automatic tiling plants are in operation. A large number of tiny units are also working.